En Pichincha, los proyectos Raíz y Trukana han construido comunidades de intercambio para fomentar esta práctica ancestral.

La crisis económica ocasionada por la pandemia del coronavirus golpea a más de uno. En el país, la gente se ha ingeniado formas de comercio para dinamizar su economía, recurriendo incluso a rescatar prácticas ancestrales.

Este es el caso de varios ciudadanos que a través del truque -técnica que se desarrolla desde hace al menos 10 mil años en diferentes sociedades del mundo- construyen relaciones comerciales de intercambio basadas en la solidaridad.

El trueque o «cambeo» es una práctica cultural. Se sustenta en el intercambio de productos que no tienen valor de uso ni de cambio económico, es decir su circulante es simbólico. Se aplica intercambiando objetos, alimentos y  servicios.

En Pichincha varios proyectos son ejemplo del rescate de esta práctica que apunta hacia una alternativa de economía popular y solidaria. En la parroquia de Tumbaco, el proyecto Raíz se dedica, hace tres años, a promover una comunidad colaborativa entre agricultores, productores y artesanos.

Jairo Calupiña, director de este proyecto, señala que el objetivo es conservar los saberes ancestrales y artesanales del Ecuador. Cuenta que, actualmente, trabaja en conjunto con 20 productores y cada vez se van incorporando más. “Por donde nosotros han pasado más de 100 productores”, agrega.

En este contexto, en 2018, Raíz obtuvo un reconocimiento por parte del Municipio de Quito, a través de Consejo de Responsabilidad Social, por fomentar el comercio justo.

A su criterio, el elemento fundamental para un trueque exitoso es la confianza. “No se puede generar un trueque cuando hay desconfianza, ese es un valor muy fuerte e importante”, expresa.

Jairo concibe al trueque, o a lo que él llama medio ancestral de transacción, como una alternativa de vida. “Creo firmemente que la gente que tiene la capacidad de ser solidaria, sale del esquema normal de verse como individuo y piensa solo en sí para ganar”, expresa y hace un llamado a la ciudadanía a pensar en comunidad.

Otro caso

Otro proyecto que apuesta por el trueque como una alternativa a la economía tradicional es Trukana, creado por Martina Álvarez y Belén Bustamante, quienes en medio de la emergencia sanitaria consolidaron una comunidad en Facebook para que la gente intercambie sus productos y servicios.

Trukana surge en el momento en el que Martina, fotógrafa de profesión, perdió su empleo y a través de un intercambio de su trabajo con el de una diseñadora gráfica surgió la idea de crear esta comunidad de intercambio.

“Me imaginé que iba haber un montón de gente que estaría en la misma situación que yo, sin poder trabajar, sin poder pagar sus cosas (…) Esto lo hablé con Belén y le dije que formemos una comunidad en el Ecuador.”, explica Martina.

Desde ese momento, ambas comenzaron a investigar el funcionamiento del intercambio en otros países y creando contenido para instruir a las personas sobre la forma de conseguir un trueque exitoso.

Martina cuenta que poco a poco han adquirido experiencia sobre esta práctica. “Hemos aprendido un montón y a través de las necesidades y quejas de los miembros hemos podido empezar a establecer lo que es Trukana”, expresa.

Dentro de esta comunidad está prohibido poner precios a los productos y servicios ya que, a criterio de las organizadoras, si realmente se quiere hacer un cambio y fomentar el trueque en el país “se debe cambiar el chip que uno tiene en la cabeza”.

“Lo que queremos fomentar no es solamente la parte de la solidaridad y que es una alternativa para enfrentar la crisis, sino que también es una forma de reducir el consumo a pasos agigantados”, relata Martina.

Explica que, en el tiempo que ha durado la cuarentena, se dio cuenta de que la gente no necesita tantas cosas y si las tiene en su casa y las puede cambiar por algo que realmente necesita, antes de salir a comprar, sería lo ideal.

De esta manera, si una persona desea intercambiar algún producto o servicio debe realizar una publicación en el grupo de Trukana en Facebook y tras ser contactado con otro usuario, el proceso de trueque se realiza con un acuerdo previo del lugar el día y la hora del intercambio.

Martina ampliará el alcance de la plataforma ya que Facebook tiene ciertas limitaciones en cuanto a herramientas. Actualmente, la comunidad está a punto de llegar a los 16 mil participantes, en los que la solidaridad y el respeto es el elemento articulador.

“No solo es el hecho de truequear necesidades básicas o productos que uno necesita, sino también el hecho de hacer algo en una época en el que muchos no pueden hacer nada”, resalta.

El objetivo de Trukana aún no termina. Belén y Martina esperan ayudar a personas que no tienen acceso a Internet, a sectores vulnerables y pequeños agricultores y así fomentar la cultura del trueque como una alternativa que sobrepase a la crisis sanitaria que, actualmente, vive el Ecuador.

En este marco, la práctica del trueque toma fuerza en medio de una crisis económica, social y sanitaria que atraviesa el Ecuador; y cada vez más, las personas apuestan por la solidaridad y el humanismo que conlleva el intercambio de productos y servicios que construyen la comunidad del trueque. (BE / El Arca)

El detalle:

Los promotores de los proyectos Raíz y Trukana conciben a la confianza como el valor primordial para un trueque exitoso.

Fuentes: Jairo Calupiña, proyecto Raíz / Martina Álvarez, proyecto Trukana / Patrimonio Cultural

Por El Arca

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